Spot development of residential purpose objects as a method for solving territorial problems (on the example of the city of Kazan)

View or download the article (Rus)

About the Authors

Victoriya A. Fedorova

Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University,
Kazan, st. Kremlin 18;

Guzel R. Safina

Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University,
Kazan, st. Kremlin 18;

Sabina N. Zaripova

Ak Bars Bank,
Kazan, st. Dekabristov, 1;


An increase in the number of inhabitants in cities, urbanization processes and congestion in infrastructure lead to a shortage of territories in urban systems. One of the most common ways to search for internal urban reserves is the implementation of infill (compaction) development. The purpose of this work is to analyze the infill development of residential facilities as a way to solve territorial problems (using the example of the city of Kazan). In the article, infill development is understood as a deviation from the general urban planning plan, when the construction of objects occurs on sites adjacent to the existing development. The authors created a register of residential buildings in Kazan, built over the period 1860–2019, deciphered and compared satellite images of 2004 and 2020, determined the functional use of land plots that preceded modern development. Spot buildings are found throughout the entire city of Kazan. However, the process of compaction of the urban fabric is uneven—it is most intense in the central, historical part of the city, which is valuable from the point of view of investors, in which a significant number of various cultural, educational, scientific institutions and other socially significant objects are concentrated. The largest number of episodes of sealing development was recorded in the Vakhitovsky district. In the period 2001–2019. 33.9 % of the total number of residential buildings in the Vakhitovsky district were built, and a significant part of them is “included” in the existing planning structure and refers to the sealing building. Closer to the periphery and borders of the city, the need for sealing construction decreases—less intensive processes of housing construction are typical for the outskirts of Kazan—Aviastroitelny, Kirovsky, Sovetsky and Privolzhsky.


city, territorial reserve, infill development, sealing development.


  1. Bibartseva D.S., Sorokoumova T.V. Compact city. Illusion or realit. International innovation research, 2018. P. 216–219.
  2. Breheny M. The contradictions of the compact city, a review. In: Sustainable Development and Urban Form. London: Pion Limited, 1992. P. 138–159.
  3. David O’Neill Smart Growth Tool Kit: Community Profiles and Case Studies to Advance Smart Growth Practices. Urban LandInstitute, 2000. 145 p.
  4. Fedorova V.A., Safina G.R. Consolidation of urban development: features, environmental problems and prospects. Land management, cadastre and land monitoring. 2018. No. 6 (161). P. 67–71.
  5. Fedorova V.A., Safina G.R., Benedict E.-Q. Environmental aspects of densification of residential development in urbanized territories (Case study: Kazan city). Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 2020. No. 18 (5). P. 519–524.
  6. Jenks M., Burton E. The Compact City: A Sustainable Urban Form. Francis e-Library, 2005. 301 p.
  7. Katzschner L. Urban climatology and applications. Vestnik VGU, seriya: geografiya, geoekologiya, 2008. P. 95–100.
  8. Krogius V.G. City and relief. M.: Stroyizdat. 1979. 128 p.
  9. Lot D.K. The problem of infill development in the city of Belgorod. World Science, 2019. No. 3 (24). P. 176–179.
  10. Medvedeva R.A., Safina G.R., Fedorova V.A. Urban densification: Features, environmental problems, and prospects. International Journal of Green Pharmacy, 2017. 11 (4) P. S868–S871.
  11. Mershchiev A.A., Lobanov D.V. Technical and legal aspects of the construction of buildings in a dense urban development. Scientific journal of VSTU, 2017. No. 4 (3). P. 55–60.
  12. Mezhenov V.E., Shalak V.A., Kovrova D.F. Types of residential buildings in Russia. Integration of science, society, production and industry, 2018. P. 38–40.
  13. Minshinin Ya.V. The main tendencies of sealing development in the cities of the Russian Federation as a form of urban planning policy implementation. Bulletin of the Voronezh Institute of Economics and Social Management, 2018. No. 2. P. 40–42.
  14. Newton P. Urban form and environmental performance. E&FNSpon. London, 2000. P. 46–52.
  15. Osmanov M.A. Problems of infill development of territories. Bulletin of Science, 2019. No. 7 (15). P. 33–36.
  16. Pavlova L.I. The space for the development and preservation of cities, the problems of the growth of agglomerations. Real Estate: Economics and Management, 2011. No. 1. P. 31–34.
  17. Peshina E.V. Smart city growth: greenfield, brownfield, grayfield. Manager, 2013. No. 5.
  18. Peshina E.V., Ryzhenkov A.V. Point development of cities: Russian and foreign experience. Proceedings of USUE, 2013. No. 5 (49). P. 92–97.
  19. Rozova S.V. Analysis of the current state of the housing sector in the Tver region. Inzhecon’s Bulletin. Series: Economics, 2011. No. 1. P. 362–366.
  20. Safina G.R, Fedorova V.A, Sirotkin V.V., Gasanov I.M. Territorial reserves of major cities: Challenges, experience, solutions. International Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, 2016. V. 8. Is. 3. P. 14864–14871.
  21. Telichenko V.I., Sumerkin Yu.A. Urban planning problems and prospects of point (sealing) development. Urban planning, 2015. No. 2. P. 55–62.
  22. Valeev A.R. Housing construction in Tatarstan in the 1990s-2000s (historical and legal aspect): author. dis. … cand. history. sciences. Institute of History. Sh. Mardzhani AN Rep. Tatarstan, Kazan. 2012.
  23. Varga-Harris K. Khrushchevka, communal apartment: socialism and everyday life during the “thaw”. Contemporary history of Russia, 2011. No. 1. P. 160–166.
  24. Zagorodnov E.I. Reconstruction of built-up urban areas. Polzunovsky Bulletin, 2013. No. 4 (1). P. 88–91.
  25. Zalessky V.V. Do you need infill development? Journal of Russian Law, 2008. No. 7. P. 49–56.

For citation: Fedorova V.A., Safina G.R., Zaripova S.N. Spot development of residential purpose objects as a method for solving territorial problems (on the example of the city of Kazan) InterCarto. InterGIS. GI support of sustainable development of territories: Proceedings of the International conference. Moscow: MSU, Faculty of Geography, 2021. V. 27. Part 4. P. 244–259. DOI: 10.35595/2414-9179-2021-4-27-244-259 (In Russian)