Spatial analysis of international student immigration in Russia

https://doi.org/10.35595/2414-9179-2021-4-27-402-414

View or download the article (Rus)

About the Authors

Ivan A. Soloviev

North-Caucasian federal university, department of socio-economic geography, geoinformatics and tourism,
Stavropol, Pushkina str. 1, 355000, Russia;
E-mail: soloivan@mail.ru.

Paul J. Fryer

University of Eastern Finland. Joensuu campus, Department of Geographical and Historical Studies,
FI-80101 Finland, Joensuu, Yliopistokatu 7;
E-mail: fryer@uef.fi.

Natalia A. Shchitova

North-Caucasian federal university, department of socio-economic geography, geoinformatics and tourism,
Stavropol, Pushkina str. 1, 355000, Russia;
E-mail: stavgeo@mail.ru

Vitaly S. Belozerov

North-Caucasian federal university, department of socio-economic geography, geoinformatics and tourism,
Stavropol, Pushkina str. 1, 355000, Russia;
E-mail: vsbelozerov@yandex.ru

Abstract

The deteriorating demographic situation, the growing risks of “personnel shortage” pose threats to the sustainable geo-economic development of Russia. One of the promising sources of replenishment of the country’s labor potential can be educational migration, in particular, immigration of foreign students. The obvious advantage of foreign students over other categories of migrants determines the problem of attracting foreign students to Russian universities with their subsequent integration into Russian communities. This requires a detailed analysis of the learning processes of foreign students, analysis of patterns, factors influencing the migration choice.

This article aims to highlight the spatial structure and territorial features of student immigration in Russia. The research information base is built on the basis of official statistics data for 2008–2020. The article presents new empirical data characterizing the main features of the formation of the immigration educational flow in the countries of origin, the dynamics of the distribution of foreign students in the regions of the country. Analysis of the dynamics of the number of foreign students demonstrates their widespread and significant growth, which allows us to consider Russia as a promising country—an exporter of higher education services. The main factors determining the influx of foreign students into the country are geographic location, geopolitical interests, demographic and economic inequality. The main countries-suppliers of foreign students are states that are part of post-Soviet integration associations or located in zones of Russian influence, as well as those with excessive demographic potential. There are noticeable in-country disparities in the distribution of foreign students: the highest concentration is observed in the Russian capitals (Moscow and St. Petersburg), Tatarstan, large South Siberian centers (Novosibirsk, Tomsk), the smallest—in the national formations of the country, with rare exceptions. The spatial features of student immigration in Russia are reflected in cartographic materials.

Keywords

educational migration, foreign students, student immigration.

References

  1. Abunavas Kh.A., Berestneva O.G. Study of the problems of adaptation of foreign students on the example of the Tomsk Polytechnic University. Methodology of teaching and improving the efficiency of academic, socio-cultural and psychological adaptation of foreign students in a Russian university: theoretical and applied aspects: materials of all-Russian. seminar. Tomsk, 2008. P. 7–11 (in Russian).
  2. Alampiev O.A. Integration of students from Turkmenistan in the Belarusian student environment: the view of Belarusian students. Humanitarian-economic Vesnik, 2014. No. 4. P. 85–92 (in Russian).
  3. Baláž V. Student migration in Europe: Contest for human capital. Migrácia študentov v Európe: sút’až o l’udský capital. Sociológia. Slovak Sociological Review, 2010. V. 42, No. 4. P. 356–382.
  4. Belozerov V.S., Shchitova N.A., Chikhichin V.V., Soloviev I.A. Foreign students in the North Caucasus: regional differences and problems of adaptation (on the example of the North Caucasus Federal University). The science. Innovation. Technologies. 2017. No. 4. P. 79–92 (in Russian).
  5. Merenkov A.V., Antonova N.L., Dorozhinskaya E.S. Problems of social adaptation of foreign students at the Ural Federal University. Bulletin of the Ural Federal University. Series 3: Social Sciences. 2013. V. 121. No. 4. P. 185–192 (in Russian).
  6. Molodikova I.N. Mobility of graduates from the CIS and the Baltic countries after studying at Western universities (the impact of territorial characteristics). Migration in the mirror of the CIS countries (youth perspective). Ed. I.N. Molodikova. M., 2006. P. 34–61 (in Russian).
  7. Poletaev D.V. Modern trends in the development of educational migration. Migration in Russia 2000–2012 Reader in 3 volumes. Chief ed. I.S. Ivanov. V. 1. Part 2. Moscow: Spetskniga, 2013. P. 361–372 (in Russian).
  8. Ryazantsev S.V., Pis’mennaya E.E. Effects of foreign educational migration for Russia. Migration in Russia 2000–2012 Reader in 3 volumes. chief ed. I.S. Ivanov. V. 1. Part 2. Moscow: Spetskniga, 2013. P. 260–270 (in Russian).

For citation: Soloviev I.A., Fryer P.J., Shchitova N.A., Belozerov V.S. Spatial analysis of international student immigration in Russia InterCarto. InterGIS. GI support of sustainable development of territories: Proceedings of the International conference. Moscow: MSU, Faculty of Geography, 2021. V. 27. Part 4. P. 402–414. DOI: 10.35595/2414-9179-2021-4-27-402-414 (In Russian)