Mapping dynamics of agricultural land use in the dry steppe zone of the Northern Кazakhstan

https://doi.org/10.35595/2414-9179-2021-4-27-5-18

View or download the article (Rus)

About the Authors

Tatiana A. Vorobyova

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Geography,
Leninskie Gory 1, 119991, Moscow, Russia;
E-mail: tvorobyova@yandex.ru

Yelaman N. Smagulov

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Geography,
Leninskie Gory 1, 119991, Moscow, Russia;
E-mail: elaman_smagulov@mail.ru

Abstract

The agricultural use of land resources in the dry steppe regions of Northern Kazakhstan has undergone significant changes over the past century and continues to change at the present time. The middle position in the region is occupied by the Akmola region, one of the leading agricultural regions, where 9.3 % of the country’s gross agricultural output is produced. The main branches of agriculture in the region are grain farming and dairy and beef cattle breeding. The study of the change in the ratio of the areas of arable and pasture lands, the changes that have occurred in the state of agricultural landscapes as a result of long-term use is important for the further development of the agricultural industry in the region. Using the example of the Astrakhan district of the Akmola region, typical for the dry steppe zone, an analysis of changes in the structure of agricultural land from 1953 to 2020 was carried out. with the help of a series of digital maps compiled from detailed maps of scientific reference atlases of Northern Kazakhstan in 1964, 1970, remote sensing data of different times, archival materials and data of modern statistics. The resulting maps visualize significant changes in cropland areas within the study area over the past 70 years. Seven main periods were identified, during which the most significant changes in the structure of land use occurred as a result of political, economic and natural factors. During the years of development of virgin and fallow lands, the highest rates of increase in arable land were observed, which continued on a smaller scale until 1990. The period from 1991-1999 characterized by a large-scale reduction of arable land and abandonment of pastures. This was followed by two periods of gradual restoration of the use of arable and rangelands. Compiled comprehensive map of the dynamics of agricultural land use from 1988 to 2020 made it possible to identify spatial and temporal patterns in changes in the structure of agricultural land use, to determine to which specific natural types of lands the abandoned lands belonged and to which restored ones. Spatial analysis showed that over the past 30, more than half of the area’s area has not changed the type of land use. The results obtained are used to select the optimal ratio of arable and pasture lands in the structure of agricultural land use, as well as to develop a strategy for the rational use of agricultural land in the zone of risky farming.

Keywords

the structure and dynamics of agricultural land use, geoinformation mapping, Northern Kazakhstan, remote sensing.

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For citation: Vorobyova T.A., Smagulov Y.N. Mapping dynamics of agricultural land use in the dry steppe zone of the Northern Кazakhstan InterCarto. InterGIS. GI support of sustainable development of territories: Proceedings of the International conference. Moscow: MSU, Faculty of Geography, 2021. V. 27. Part 4. P. 5–18. DOI: 10.35595/2414-9179-2021-4-27-5-18 (In Russian)