Urban contacts and conflicts: the GIS-monitoring and management of ethnocultural diversity

https://doi.org/10.35595/2414-9179-2020-2-26-20-40

View or download the article (Rus)

About the Authors

Olga I. Vendina

Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Staromonetny lane, 29-4, 119017, Moscow, Russia,
E-mail: vendina@gmail.com

Alexander N. Panin

Moscow State University M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Geography,
Leninskie Gory, 1, 119991, Moscow, Russia,
E-mail: alex_panin@mail.ru

Abstract

This article is aimed to outline the possible design of the GIS-monitoring for revealing the problems associated with the growth of ethnocultural diversity in mega-cities. Monitoring is considered to be one of the urban governance pillars and a methodological approach allowing administration to meet specific challenges in situations, where the object of governance — interethnic relationships — is uncertain, fragile and changeable. The authors assume that an urban environment is a highly contact environment — a self-organized social reality permeated by plethora of links and interactions which can be influenced by the direct and indirect administration. In this context cultural diversity management is seen as a combination of practices corresponding to grass-route processes with strategic logic of the politics of counteracting to ethnic discrimination, violence and conflicts. The importance of the interdisciplinary approach to the analysis of the causes and consequences of interethnic and wider intercultural tensions in the cities is underlined in the article. The key principles of the ethnocultural diversity monitoring which ensure its efficiency as an analytical tool of policy-making are formulated. The empirical abilities and limits of various theoretical concepts, methods, and data sources are shown. The role of GIS as a platform to integrate and synthesize heterogeneous information from many sources — from statistical indicators and survey results to BigData and twitter-messages, is emphasized. The authors believe that the proposed design of the GIS-monitoring should allow to overcome the problem of direct political subordination of the ethnocultural politics at the city level to that at the regional and federal levels, and to realize the synthesis of different approaches instead of replicating.

Keywords

monitoring, city, governance, ethnocultural diversity, GIS

References

  1. Abrams D., Frings D., Randsley de Moura G. Group identity and self-definition. The handbook of group research and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2005. P. 329–350. DOI: 10.4135/9781412990165.
  2. Ahn von M., Lupton R., Greenwood C., Wiggins D. Languages, ethnicity, and education in London. London: Institute of Education, University of London. Department of Quantitative Social Studies. Working Paper, 2010. No 10–12. Web resource: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/46463035_Languages_Ethnicity_and_Education_in_London (accessed 18.03.2020).
  3. Allport G. The nature of prejudices. Cambridge, MA: Addison Wesley, 1954. 576 p.
  4. Al Ramiah A., Miles H., Schmid K. Social identity and intergroup conflict. Psychological Studies, 2011. V. 56. No 1. P. 44–52. DOI: 10.1007/s12646-011-0075-0.
  5. Andersen H.Sk. Ethnic spatial segregation in european cities. Routledge, 2019. 240 p.
  6. Barry B. Culture and equality. An egalitarian critique of multiculturalism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001. 399 p.
  7. Billiet J., Meuleman B., Dewitte H. The relation between ethnic threat and economic insecurity in times of economic crisis: analysis of European Social Survey data. Migration Studies, 2014. V. 2. No 1. P. 1–27. DOI: 10.1093/migration/mnu023.
  8. Binder J., Zagefka H., Brown R., Funke F. Does contact reduce prejudice or does prejudice reduce contact? A longitudinal test of the contact hypothesis among majority and minority groups in three european countries. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2009. V. 96. No 4. P. 843–856. DOI: 10.1037/a0013470.
  9. Blumer H. Race prejudice as a sense of group position. Pacific Sociological Review, 1958. No 1. P. 3–7.
  10. Bobo L. Group conflict, prejudice, and the paradox of contemporary racial attitudes. Eliminating Racism: Profiles in Controversy. New York: Plenum Press, 1988. P. 85–114.
  11. Bogardus E.S. Social distance. Los Angeles, CA: University of Southern California Press, 1959. 104 p.
  12. Boltanski L., Chiapello E. The new spirit of capitalism. Moscow: New Literary Review, 2011. 976 p. (in Russian).
  13. Brubaker R. Ethnicity without groups. Moscow: Publishing House of the HSE, 2012. 408 p. (in Russian).
  14. Castles S. Migration and minorities in Europe. Perspectives for the 1990s: Eleven hypotheses. Racism and Migration in Western Europe. Oxford: BERG, 1993. P. 17–34.
  15. Collier P. Exodus: How migration changes our world. Moscow: Gaidar Institute Press, 2016. 384 p. (in Russian).
  16. Drobizheva L.M. Civic identity as a condition for weakening ethnic negative stereotype. World of Russia. Sociology. Ethnology, 2017. V. 26. No 1. P. 7–31 (in Russian).
  17. Foner N., Duyvendak J.W., Kasinitz Ph. Introduction: super-diversity in everyday life. Ethnic and Racial Studies. Spatial Issue: super-diversity in everyday life, 2019. V. 42. No 1. P. 1–16. DOI: 10.1080/01419870.2017.1406969.
  18. Forbes H.D. Ethnic conflict and the contact hypothesis. Psychological dimensions to war and peace. The psychology of ethnic and cultural conflict. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004. P. 69–88.
  19. Glaser J. Social context and inter-group political attitudes: Experiments in group conflict theory. British Journal of Political Science, 2003. V. 33. No 4. P. 607–620.
  20. Gudkov L.D. Negative identity. The articles: 1997–2002. Moscow: New Literary Review, 2004. 816 p. (in Russian).
  21. Hewstone M., Lolliot S., Swart H., Myers E., Voci A., Al Ramiah A., Cairns E. Intergroup contact and intergroup conflict. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 2014. V. 20. No 1. P. 39–53. DOI: 10.1037/a0035582.
  22. Hogg M., Abrams D. Social identifications: A social psychology of intergroup relations and group processes. London: Routledge, 1988. 288 p.
  23. Hogg M.A., Terry D., White K.M. A tale of two theories: A critical comparison of identity theory with social identity theory. Social Psychology Quarterly, 1995. V. 58. No 4. P. 255–269. DOI: 10.2307/2787127.
  24. Jakobson G., Buford J., Lewis L. Situation management: Basic concepts and approaches. Information Fusion and Geographic Information Systems. Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2007. P. 18–33.
  25. Jargowsky P.A. The architecture of segregation: Civil unrest, the concentration of poverty, and public policy. The Century Foundation. Iss. Brief, 2015. Web resource: https://community-wealth.org/sites/clone.community-wealth.org/files/downloads/report-jargowsky.pdf (accessed 18.03.2020).
  26. Joseph G. From Ferguson to Charlotte, why police protests turn into riots. CityLab, September 2016. Web resource: https://www.citylab.com/equity/2016/09/from-ferguson-to-charlotte-why-police-protests-turn-into-riots/500981/ (accessed 18.03.2020).
  27. Luhmann N. Limits of steering. Theory, Culture & Society, 1997. V. 14. No 1. P. 41–57. DOI: 10.1177/026327697014001003.
  28. Meuleman B. Perceived economic threat and anti-immigration attitudes: Effects of immigrant group size and economic conditions revsited. Cross-cultural analysis: methods and applications. London: Routledge, 2011. P. 281–310.
  29. Meuleman B., Davidov E., Billiet J. Changing attitudes toward immigration in Europe, 2002–2007: A dynamic group conflict theory approach. Social Science Research, 2009. V. 38. No 2. P. 352–365. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2008.09.006.
  30. Migrations and cities of the world: New partnerships for managing mobile processes. Global Migration Report. Moscow: IOM, 2016. 250 p. (in Russian).
  31. Mukomel V.I. Xenophobia: ethnophobia and migrant phobia of the host population. Social factors of interethnic tension in Russia. Moscow: FISIS RAS, 2017. P. 146–196 (in Russian).
  32. Osgood Ch.E., May W.H., Miron M.S. Cross-cultural universals of affective meaning. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1975. 520 p.
  33. “Own” and “Alien”: tolerance, stereotypes, and rights. Moscow: Moscow Helsinki Group, 2016. 116 p. (in Russian).
  34. Parrillo V.N., Donoghue C. Updating the bogardus social distance studies: A new national survey. The Social Science Journal, 2005. V. 42. No 2. P. 257–271.
  35. Putnam R.D. “E pluribus unum”: Diversity and community in the twenty-first century. The 2006 Johan Skytte prize lecture. Scandinavian Political Studies, 2007. V. 30. No 2. P. 137–174.
  36. Pettigrew T.F., Tropp L.R. How does intergroup contact reduce prejudice? Meta-analytic tests of three mediators. European Journal of Social Psychology, 2008. No 38. P. 922–934. DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.504.
  37. Pettigrew T.F., Tropp L.R. When groups meet: The dynamics of intergroup contact. Hove, East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press, 2011. 320 p.
  38. Price M., Benton-Short L. Migration to the metropolis: the rise of immigrant gateway cities. NY: Syracuse University Press, 2008. 424 p.
  39. Quillian L. Prejudice as a response to perceived group threat: Population composition and anti-immigrant and racial prejudice in Europe. American Sociological Review, 1995. V. 60. No 4. P. 586–611. DOI: 10.2307/2096296.
  40. Ruble B. Urban diversity in the era of large-scale migrations. Bulletin of the Kennan Institute in Russia, 2012. No 21. P. 36–44 (in Russian).
  41. Rustenbach E. Sources of negative attitudes toward immigrants in Europe. A mullti-level analysis. International Migration Review, 2010. V. 44. No 1. P. 53–77. DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-7379.2009.00798.x.
  42. Schneider C. Police power and race riots. Politics & Society, 2008. V. 36. No 1. P. 133–159. DOI: 10.1177/0032329208314802.
  43. Schneider J. Demographic “megatrends” and their implications. Siirtolaisuus. Migration, 2018. No 3. P. 26–31.
  44. Shnirelman V.A. “Cleaners of Moscow streets”: skinheads, mass-media and public opinion. Мoscow: Academy, 2010. 2nd edition. 164 p. (in Russian).
  45. Svendsen B.A., Quist P. Multilingual Scandinavia: New linguistic practices. Introduction. Multilingual Urban Scandinavia. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters, 2010. P. xiii–xxiii. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847693143.
  46. Tajfel H., Turner J.C. An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. The Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations. Monterey: Brooks-Cole, 1979. P. 33–47.
  47. Tribalat M. Assimilation: la fin du modèle français. Paris: Toucan, 2013. 352 p. (in French).
  48. Tropp L.R. Understanding and responding to intergroup conflict: Toward an integrated analysis. The Oxford Handbook of Intergroup Conflict. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. P. 3–10.
  49. Tropp L.R., Pettigrew T.F. Relationships between intergroup contact and prejudice among minority and majority status groups. Psychological Science, 2005. V. 16. P. 951–957. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2005.01643.x.
  50. Tsapenko I.P. The search for new approaches to the sociocultural integration of migrants. Demographic Review, 2018.No 6. P. 125–149. DOI: 10.17323/demreview.v5i4.8665 (in Russian).
  51. Varshaver E.A., Rocheva A.L., Ivanova N.S. Integration of migrants at the local level: results of a scientific and practical project. Sociological Research, 2017. No 5. P. 110–117 (in Russian).
  52. Vendina O.I., Pain E.A. Multiethnic city. Moscow: Sector, 2018. 180 p. (in Russian).
  53. Verkhovsky A. Dynamics of hate crimes and the activities of ultra-right-wing groups and movements in Russia in the 2010s. The paths to peace and security. Problems of terrorism, violent extremism and radicalization (Russian and American approaches). Special issue. Moscow: IMEMO RAS, 2017. P. 116–124 (in Russian).
  54. Vertovec S. Super-diversity and its implications. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 2007. V. 30. No 6. P. 1024–1054. DOI: 10.1080/01419870701599465.
  55. Vertovec S. Talking around super-diversity. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 2019. V. 42. No 1. P. 125–139. DOI: 10.1080/01419870.2017.1406128.
  56. Vishnevsky A.G., Denisenko M.B. Migration in a global context. Report at the XVII International Scientific Conference on the Development of Economics and Society. Moscow: National Research University HSE, 2016. 17 p. (in Russian).
  57. Zartman W.I. Mediating conflicts of need, greed, and creed. Orbis, 2000. V. 44. No 2. P. 255–266. DOI: 10.1016/S0030-4387(00)00016-8.

For citation: Vendina O.I., Panin A.N. Urban contacts and conflicts: the GIS-monitoring and management of ethnocultural diversity InterCarto. InterGIS. GI support of sustainable development of territories: Proceedings of the International conference. Moscow: Moscow University Press, 2020. V. 26. Part 2. P. 20–40. DOI: 10.35595/2414-9179-2020-2-26-20-40 (In Russian)