The place of european cities of the Mediterranean in the sphere of tourism of the European Union

DOI: 10.35595/2414-9179-2023-1-29-255-271

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About the Authors

Irina N. Tikunova

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Geography,
1, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119991, Russia,

Ekaterina A. Kurlanova

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Geography,
1, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119991, Russia


The purpose of the study is to determine the position of Mediterranean cities in the European tourism system. For this purpose, the tourist attractiveness and tourism development of the Mediterranean region and the EU countries are analyzed. The place of the most attractive tourist cities of the Mediterranean in the EU market has been determined. Their strengths and weaknesses in the development of tourism are highlighted and opportunities and threats are considered. The methods of comparative, cluster, SWOT analysis were used in the work, a classification and a series of tables and maps were created. As a result of cluster analysis of a dozen indicators, groups of countries by tourist attractiveness and groups of cities of the European Union by the level of tourism development were identified. The study showed that the cities of the Mediterranean have different degrees of tourism development, while the level of tourism development in the cities of the western part of the region is higher than in the eastern. The largest of them have a diversified tourist offer and attract tourists as centers of resort, cultural and educational, business, event and religious tourism. They are a popular destination for citizens of Germany, Great Britain, Austria and the Scandinavian countries. There is also an interchange of tourists from the Mediterranean countries: France and Italy. Mediterranean cities have different and, in some cases, significantly different values of tourism development indicators. Higher rates of tourism development are observed in cities in the western part of the Mediterranean, while lower rates are observed in cities in the eastern part (cities of Greece, Croatia, Slovenia, Cyprus). The predominant number of Mediterranean cities, which are included in the list of the most popular destinations, demonstrate indicators of tourism development closer to the minimum values: economy and business, tourist activity, tourist policy and attractiveness, tourist infrastructure. In terms of characteristics, they are similar to cities in Portugal, as well as cities in Eastern Europe. The weak side of the development of tourism in Mediterranean cities is the indicators of sustainable development (the increase in average air temperature, the content of PM2.5 particles in the air), which affects the index of sustainable tourism. After the lifting of all coronavirus restrictions, Mediterranean cities are capable of rapid recovery due to the fact that they provide a familiar tourist product of good quality, which is important in conditions of uncertainty. Also, a plus is the proximity to the countries-the main suppliers of tourists and a long travel ban, which stimulated the desire to travel.


tourism, Mediterranean cities, tourist attractiveness, cluster and SWOT analyses, classifications


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For citation: Tikunova I.N., Kurlanova E.A. The place of european cities of the Mediterranean in the sphere of tourism of the European Union. InterCarto. InterGIS. GI support of sustainable development of territories: Proceedings of the International conference. Moscow: MSU, Faculty of Geography, 2023. V. 29. Part 1. P. 255–271. DOI: 10.35595/2414-9179-2023-1-29-255-271 (in Russian)