Structure from motion technology for historic building information modeling of Toron fortress (Lebanon)

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About the Author

Jean A. Doumit

Lebanese University, Faculty of letters and human sciences, department of geography,


Structure from motion (SFM) algorithms greatly facilitates the production of detailed 3D models from photographs we applied this technology for the purposes of Building Information Modeling (BIM) of a historic fortress in Lebanon. Aerial and terrestrial imagery processed in SFM-based software for exterior and interior 3D modeling of the fortress.

In this paper, we applied new geospatial technologies, aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry for Historic Building Information Modeling HBIM database construction. The UAV used for aerial photogrammetry, a DJI Phantom 4 pro with a camera of 20 megapixels for building facades capturing and a DSLR camera for the terrestrial photogrammetry inside the fortress.

Aerial and terrestrial images processed in Agisoft Photoscan for the construction of Toron fortress HBIM of a block Geographical Information System constituted from points cloud, Digital Surface Models (DSM) and Digital Ortho Models (DOM).

HBIM is a novel prototype library of parametric objects, based on historic architectural and archeological data and a system for mapping parametric objects on to point clouds database.

As a result, the production of Toron fortress HBIM database containing Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Computer Aided Design (CAD) features and entities in the form of sections plans and 3D models for both the analysis and conservation of historic objects, structures, and environments.


HBIM, SFM, Photogrammetry, 3D modeling, parametric objects.


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For citation: Doumit J.A. Structure from motion technology for historic building information modeling of Toron fortress (Lebanon) InterCarto. InterGIS. GI support of sustainable development of territories: Proceedings of the International conference. Moscow: Moscow University Press, 2019. V. 25. Part 2. P. 288–296. DOI: 10.35595/2414-9179-2019-2-25-288-296