GIS technologies in developing the maps of vulnerabilities of sea aquatories and sensitivity of the coasts to oil pollution

https://doi.org/10.35595/2414-9179-2019-2-25-133-145

View or download the article (Rus)

About the Authors

Olga P. Kalinka

Murmansk marine biological institute,
Vladimirskaya str., 17, 183010, Murmansk, Russia,
E-mail: kalinka@mmbi.info

Andrey N. Karnatov

Murmansk marine biological institute,
Vladimirskaya str., 17, 183010, Murmansk, Russia,
E-mail: karnatov@mmbi.info

Abstract

The article describes the process of mapping of water area vulnerability and the sensitivity of the coast for oil pollution. The integral ecological vulnerability of the sea area under study is calculated as a result of “summing up” maps of seasonal distribution of the most important components of the ecosystem, taking into account the potential impact of oil on biota, its sensitivity to oil and its ability to recover. The degree of coastal sensitivity is determined in accordance with the system of environmental sensitivity indices ESI. This system characterizes the integral susceptibility of the coast to oil pollution, reflecting the connection between the composition, structure of the coast and the physical processes occurring when oil enters the shore, and also takes into account the difficulties of its subsequent purification. In the work with large volumes of heterogeneous data accumulated in maps of different purposes, content and scale, there is a need to process and interpret such data, which used a GIS-oriented approach.

The developed vulnerability maps are essential in planning oil spill response operations and other environmental activities and can facilitate informed and operational decisions. The marine ecosystems of the Northern latitudes are particularly vulnerable to oil pollution, so accidental spills, especially large-scale ones, will have catastrophic consequences here. It is therefore particularly important the existence of such maps in the Arctic region where active mining and is actively developing the transportation of oil and oil products through the Northern Sea Route, creating increased risks of accidental spills. The presented maps of the waters of the North-Western sector of the Arctic show the most vulnerable and oil-sensitive coastal and marine areas with possible potential spills.

Keywords

GIS-technology, vulnerability maps, oil pollution, oil spill response.

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For citation: Kalinka O.P., Karnatov A.N. GIS technologies in developing the maps of vulnerabilities of sea aquatories and sensitivity of the coasts to oil pollution InterCarto. InterGIS. GI support of sustainable development of territories: Proceedings of the International conference. Moscow: Moscow University Press, 2019. V. 25. Part 2. P. 133–145. DOI: 10.35595/2414-9179-2019-2-25-133-145 (In Russian)