MAPS OF IMPACT ZONES OF REGION OF THE KURSK MAGNETIC ANOMALY FOR THE ECOLOGICAL ATLAS OF RUSSIA

https://doi.org/10.24057/2414-9179-2016-1-22-276-297

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About the Author

O. I. Markova

M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University
Russian Federation

Faculty of Geography, Integrated Mapping Laboratory, senior researcher

Moscow, 119991, Russia

Abstract

Maps of several impact zones of the Russian Federation are included in the Ecological Atlas of Russia. These zones are characterized by the high degree of the development of the mining industry and respectively by high level of the anthropogenic impact on the environment. One of these regions is the region of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly (КМА), where the extractive industry is most developed in separate areas of Kursk and Belgorod regions. During a long time the iron ore is mined here both open and closed methods. The general map of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly lets to see in complex all iron ore regions and deposits and to reveal most environmentally dangerous of them as well as to evaluate the significance of deposits. Large-scale maps let to consider diverse anthropogenic changes of the environment caused by the extractive industry as well as by related industries. In regions of the intensive development of the mining industry with great areas included in the process of the industrial production and the storage of wastes take place the movement of huge masses of ground, the destruction and the degradation of the vegetation cover, the destruction of the traditional structure of settlements and the disappearance of most settlements. In example of areas of impact zones processes of the disappearance of rural settlements, of the urban sprawl and of displacement of the agriculture by the extractive industry can be seen firsthand. A registration of the development of this process is very important in the planning of the development of territories, all the more so the region of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly has fertile chernozem soils which are not very abundant in the territory of the Russian Federation. Mining complexes are surrounded by a range of related companies serving the production and livelihoods of the population. These companies also have an impact on the environment, sometimes significantly changing it. Serious changes in the environment occur on the mechanical and on the chemical levels. Natural objects replenish by a large number of alien chemical elements, the pollution of natural environments is proceeding. The preservation of objects of the natural and cultural heritage, which are presented in these areas, has a particular importance. An economical growth caused by the development of the mining industry, allows plan the placement and development of facilities for the recreation and the tourism. Methods of the mapping includes a creating of a survey map of fields of KMA with evaluation of ecological situation in the scale 1: 2 000 000 and of detailed maps in the scale 1:100 000 of certain key areas with most complex ecological problems. Such areas include the world's largest iron ore field Mikhaylovskoye situated in the Kursk region and eldest fields of Gubkin and Stary Oskol in the Belgorod region. A complex estimation of anthropogenic environmental changes realized through the synthetic mapping of territories of impact zones is a base of the elaboration of the ecological safe development of mining complexes.

Keywords

the mapping of impact zones, mining complexes, iron ore fields, the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly, the anthropogenic impact on the environment, the protection of nature and culture heritage objects..

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For citation: Markova O.I. MAPS OF IMPACT ZONES OF REGION OF THE KURSK MAGNETIC ANOMALY FOR THE ECOLOGICAL ATLAS OF RUSSIA. Proceedings of the International conference “InterCarto. InterGIS”. 2016;22(1):276-297.