Cartographic support of identification of natural and man-made sources of dissolved matter in lake Baikal basin

https://doi.org/10.35595/2414-9179-2022-1-28-175-188

View or download the article (Rus)

About the Authors

Yury M. Semenov

V.B. Sochava Institute of geography of SB RAS,
Ulan-Batorskaya st., 1, 664033, Irkutsk, Russia;
E-mail: yumsemenov@mail.ru

Anton V. Silayev

V.B. Sochava Institute of geography of SB RAS,
Ulan-Batorskaya st., 1, 664033, Irkutsk, Russia;
E-mail: anton_s@bk.ru

Mikhail Yu. Semenov

Limnological institute of SB RAS,
Ulan-Batorskaya st., 3, 664033, Irkutsk, Russia;
E-mail: smu@mail.ru

Abstract

A method of GIS mapping was developed to identify and assess the contributions of sources of matter to the composition of surface waters. The basis for the creation of the GIS database was the results of the study of the spatial diversity of the chemical composition of surface waters. Geoinformation analysis included the creation of a digital framework for mapping, vectorization of mapping sources and Earth remote sensing materials, creation of a single database combining cartographic, statistical information and field observation materials, morphometric relief analysis based on a digital relief model, creating a landscape basis for base maps, creating thematic maps, analyzing changes in the components of geosystems, creating electronic cartographic layers allowing to identify participation of solute sources in formation of water composition. The analysis of component changes was based on the results of different-time studies of the composition of water and bottom sediments. Based on the comparison of the chemical composition of the waters of the Baikal tributaries with the chemical and mineralogical composition of rocks, an approach was developed to identify sources of solute and assess their contributions to the formation of macro- and microelement compositions of surface waters. To solve the problems of the study, methods of statistical analysis of data, multicomponent mixing using systems of linear equations, field methods of data collection were used. Three main categories of solute sources (silicate, sulfide-containing silicate, carbonate rocks) were identified and their contributions to the chemical composition of water were calculated. On the basis of microelement tracers, the contributions of silicate rocks were divided into contributions of primary and secondary silicate rocks, ore-containing silicate rocks without sulfides were isolated. By comparing the ratios of concentrations of trace elements in the waters of uncontaminated territories and wastewater of enterprises, tracers were identified that made it possible to identify sources of surface water pollution. Maps of territories that determine a certain chemical composition of surface waters were compiled, which was first classified on the basis of the ratio of the contributions of drained rocks.

Keywords

mapping, GIS, Baikal, surface water, solute, sources

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For citation: Semenov Y.M., Silayev A.V., Semenov M.Yu. Cartographic support of identification of natural and man-made sources of dissolved matter in lake Baikal basin InterCarto. InterGIS. GI support of sustainable development of territories: Proceedings of the International conference. Moscow: MSU, Faculty of Geography, 2022. V. 28. Part 1. P. 175–188. DOI: 10.35595/2414-9179-2022-1-28-175-188 (In Russian)